Advertising, children, and Adolescents

As we all know and probably get tired of hearing is how TV, especially advertisements, are making American children obese.   Well, that’s not the only mark that television is leaving on our youth.   Apparently a large amount of exposure is leading to nutritional problems as well as bad habit, according to Pediatrics: Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, about 40,000 commercials are exposed to children a year. (“Children, Adolescents, and Advertising”)  There are a number of already obvious problems in society that are derived from television, one being ones children complaining for toys or cloths and begging and screaming in the stores if they get denied their request.  We’ve all heard it, especially around Christmas time.  The child asks their parent for something they probably saw on television and keeps asking and asking, then starts screaming and crying (especially if they have got away with this tactic before).  Before long the parent starts to get embarrassed, annoyed or angry with the child and eventually gives into what the fuss was caused over.  It doesn’t help that ads are now being pushed or rather “pop-up’d” in children’s faces as they scan the internet. This number is also steadily increasing as the internet enters its Web 3.0 era, where related or branched sites and ads are proposed on the side of the screen when searching for an item or bit of information. For example Facebook now has ads or “likes” on the right side of the screen that pertain to previous “likes” on one’s profile.  If you “like” buttery popcorn, brands of popcorn or popcorn seasoning start showing up on the side.   This could eventually lead to children being particular or even self-conscious of what they do or eat, leading to large problems in the long run.

Studies show that a child cannot fully understand the persuasive technique of advertising, most of these ads also pertain[n to just a one-man-band sort of toy.  This type of toy can ultimately lead to deficient creativity, causing an era of pre-mature adults.   Another form of unwanted footprint that is left of the surface of our youth is the ideal exterior body or facial look.   Today there are Disney Princess articles on stock, to be more precise there are close to 40,000 items roaming the shelving units looking for eager girls to admire them. (“The Problems”)    This message of ideal perfection is damaging to the minds of our young people and giving them ideas that they will never be good enough if they don’t have a certain brand of shoes or cloths or the right style of hair.  “Ads sell us more than items they sell us images, concepts of love and sexuality and above all normalcy.” Jean Kilbourne says in her Media Education Foundation production; Killing Us Softly 4 Even supermodels are not as “super” as their photos.  These photos are so touched up that the model doesn’t even look like her/him-self really is. Kilbourne goes on to say that young girls feel comfortable with themselves until they reach their teen years then they hit a “wall,” because of the stress that is put on looking beautiful, and a major reaction to this wall is eating disorders. (Kilbourne, Jean)

Television spends over $ 17 billion per year, that’s double what it was less than ten years ago.  The kids that marketing and advertising firms are spending all this money on is paying off. Apparently $150 billion of parents’ money is being spent on these children. Showing that children now have immense amount of control over their parents spending, all this leading back to the ads they saw of television or in other accessible archives. (Lagorio, Christine.) I believe this high dollar spending budget is due to a child having higher standards on what they wear, eat, write with, or even listen too.  All this eventually leading to the influences around them creating even a desire for more, and ads are in high supply.  I initiate that parents should be the filters to tell their kids that it’s alright not to follow the norm or popularity of certain things and just be themselves.  That it’s not a contest, everyone bleeds red, everyone’s heart beats, so who says we have to change these colors or speed to stay within our click? I think parents should be a model for their children to follow not the TV.

As we begin to wrap up our controversial topic, we ask ourselves, “How does this apply to us college students perfectly in between the influential stage and the parent consumer stage?”, “We’ve lived through this issue by only experiencing the influential, adolescent part, but does that make us qualified to make an evaluation of both sides?”, “Would simply telling the advertising production companies to quit such habits really help the situation?” I will attempt to answer these before engaging you in your own critical thinking in order to form an opinion unique only to you.

“How does this apply to us?” Well, as much as we’d hate to admit it, our 18-24 age group and ‘single’ demographic are still children at heart. Old habits die hard. The same advertising strategies, no matter how simple or complex, that appealed to our individualities as children still appeal to us as ‘pre- to middle-lifers’. Although the child in us is intrigued by the product and advertisement, the adult handling money within us is dealing with the influence on ourselves to buy that specific product. Although the product may be different, the principle is still the same. Then, by using this argument we no longer are “in-betweens”, but we are the whole situation, playing both sides of the fence. We intrinsically are playing both roles in the argument. This is only one way that this issue “applies to us”.

Another way is more extrinsically, not because we may soon be playing ONLY the adult consumer part of the equation, but because of the ‘trickle-down effect’, or absence of. Let’s follow the money’s viewpoint. Fast-forward through the situation to the child kicking and screaming in the store. The adult finally gives in grabs the somehow-exciting Saucy-O’s and heads to the cash register with her other items. Adult Guardian pays Clerk Money-Handler and Adult Guardian leaves store with Now-Smiling Child holding Somehow-Not-As-Exciting-In-Hand-As-On-TV Saucy-O’s. But the money is what I want to follow. A portion of what Adult Guardian paid will go to the store’s funds, but not quite enough as an individual sale to call it ‘profit’. Most of that money will go to the general whole-sale company acting as the middle man in-between the store and the individual company (let’s say the company is Saucy’s). Then much money is thrown towards Saucy’s for even supplying the general whole-sale store with their product, Saucy-O’s, in the first place. Then the money is distributed within the company to pay the employees and to the outside of the company for the electricity, water, etc… Everything left over from these payments is pure profit for the company; Cold hard cash is put in their wallet to be re-spent on more convincing advertising and marketing. Although the trickle-down money through the economy is more of a drip-down, slowly making its way back to us through those employees and electric companies, we really have no benefit from the situation in its entirety except through the empty-calorie Saucy-O’s being distributed. In today’s world, multi-tasking for individuals and whole companies isn’t just valued; it IS a value, shown through production companies also being environmental-friendly, major distributing companies putting part of their profits up for college students and families in need, and ‘walking and chewing gum at the same time’ now becoming an expected ability. In conclusion to the long explanation, the situation applies to us because it doesn’t benefit us.

The second statement made earlier, questioning our qualifications for making a decision in such a quandary, can be answered with a simple, “Yes.” We are qualified to be involved and considered in this ordeal because we are a part of the consumerism in this society and by living in a country valuing democracy, it is very much our role to voice our very own opinions. But it is not to be done without research, critical thinking, and consideration for all parties involved.

The third and last question approached above asks, “Would simply telling the advertising production companies to quit such habits really help the situation?” Let me answer this in another situational manner.  Men, you’re going to the home improvement store to buy flooring. Women, you’re going to the local shoe store for some new pumps. Both sexes arrive at their desired locations and begin talking to the salesperson asking about quality, quantity, what-have-you. The salesperson discretely says to you, “Well, the quality you’re looking for won’t be satisfied from this store,” and the clerk begins to give you directions to where you’ll really find the quality you’re wanting. Is the salesperson right for going against his/her company, or is he/she right for valuing your desires and giving you what you asked for, even though you may not be satisfied with the product? It’s an ethical dilemma that I find these companies deal with on a more grandiose scale. One cannot demand or ask another, “Stop making money,” only to follow up with, “because it’s making me mad.” Instead, these companies CAN be asked to improve upon what they sell, since how they sell it is already, obviously, ‘up-to-speed’. Instead, let’s reroute our way of a solution by asking these companies to advertise something with a true nutritional benefit and not a product with empty calories sugar-coated with frosting. Let’s challenge these companies by saying, “Ok, if you can advertise and sell so great as a company, let’s see you sell the unsellable.” Let’s not cut ourselves short by simply telling these companies to “Stop Advertising”; Let’s tell them what the real issue is and say, “Stop Advertising Crap!”

As we have been through this issue’s description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation, it’s time for the engagement. No, I’m not proposing with a ring, but instead, with a question, “What do you think?” Don’t decide overnight, but take a couple days with it. As you shop at your grocery store, ask yourself, “What seems really bright and exciting right now that I’m not necessarily shopping for?” Age yourself down and hyper your inner conscious voice asking, “What do I want, what do I want, what do I want?!” Look over the nutritional facts of those products you choose. Let the controversy as a whole play out and mull over in the cranium of yours and decide an opinion. Then, voice those opinions. It’s never too late to have a say in how we live.  This engagement is more of an intrinsic one, asking you to simply pick a side of the fence, because it’s the ones sitting atop the fence that get knocked over the easiest.









Works Cited

“Children, Adolescents, and Advertising.” Pediatrics. Web. 28 July 2011. <;.


Kilbourne, Jean. “Killing Us Softly 4 Advertising’s Image of Women.” Media Education Foundation | Educational Videos for Teaching Media Literacy and Media Studies, Featuring Sut Jhally, Jean Kilbourne, Jackson Katz & More. Web. 28 July 2011. <;.


Lagorio, Christine. “Resources: Marketing To Kids – CBS News.” Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News – CBS News. Web. 28 July 2011. <;.


“The Problems with Mass Marketing Aimed at Children.” Dangerous Intersection. Web. 28 July 2011. <;.


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Banning Books in Public Schools

Robert Bovaird, Natalie Fisher, and Stephanie Switzky

Dr. Qingjiang Yao

COMM 128

24 July, 2011

Banning Books in Public Schools

According to an article in School Library Journal, there were only 420 cases of written challenges to library books and other materials in 2007.  As these were only formal challenges, submitted in writing, it is estimated that only 1 in 5 cases of challenges are actually reported (Whelan). In a survey of why librarians refused to buy certain controversial titles, SLJ discovered that 70% of them feared the response of parents; 29% of them feared backlash from an administrator, the community, or students; and 23% of them refused due to personal objections (Whelan).  In fact, the survey reported that 49% of librarians have dealt with book challenges in their careers (Whelan).  While there is a relatively small number of formal challenges, librarians cite realistic concerns regarding book challenges.  It would be no surprise for librarians to be erring on the side of caution when it comes to books that are potentially controversial.  However, according to Pat Scales, president of the Association of Library Services to Children, the practice of rejecting books because of anticipated challenges is self censorship, and thereby goes against professional ethics (Whelan).  Whether it is self-regulation (or self-censorship) or authorities actively removing titles from the shelves, it appears to be a no-win scenario for those professionals in the position of choosing materials for young students to read.

The act of censoring, which is the repression of speech, has been employed by the controlling bodies of our societies in countless forms.  Some of the darkest periods of human civilization are synonymous with censorship and repression.  This censorship involved both the written and the spoken word, and in today’s world, it is concerned with television, radio, film, and internet.  For centuries, the Catholic Church had published a list of forbidden books called the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (“List of Prohibited Books”).  From 1557 to 1966, this book was an example of censorship on a large scale (Boston).   Novels that we deem to be classics, such as Madame Bovary and Les Miserable, and authors that are integral figures in today’s literary canon (Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, and Emile Zola) were once taboo according to the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Boston).  As for the complete history of book banning, one needs only to flip through a history textbook and an example of such censorship can be easily located.  Notorious examples of book burning, a radical form of censorship, include Chinese philosophy books in the 3rd century BC, history books in the Roman empire, the Decameron and Ovid in Renaissance Italy, and myriad types of books in Nazi Germany and the USSR.

The United States of America has even seen its fair share of book-burning.  However, the idea of censoring books from our public schools is an issue that has been around for a long time and is still a tense issue.  In 1976, the Committee on Bias and Censorship in the Elementary School formed to work with Task Force on Racism and Bias in the Teaching of English with the objective of giving schools a sense of direction and leadership in establishing guidelines for selecting books (NCTE). The guidelines created by these groups also led to more censorship.

In 1982, the United States Supreme Court settled a landmark case: Island Trees Union Free School District No. 26 versus Pico.  For decades, public school districts had been engaging in many different forms of regulation with regards to the titles used by teachers and available in libraries.  The Supreme Court decided that the removal of books is permissible only if they were determined to be “educationally unsuitable” (Gottlieb). Judge Joseph Tauro defended the court’s decision by saying, “What is at stake here is the right to read and to be exposed to controversial thoughts and language” (Gottlieb). In its wake, the Pico decision left many effects on public education.  It became a trend for school boards to develop policy statements that included specific procedures that were appropriate to the grade levels of the school buildings.  Further, boards began formulating specific policies to accommodate any possible community objections. Finally, the school boards would establish neutral review committees to examine, discuss, and make recommendations regarding library selections (Gottlieb).

According to the National Council of Teachers of English, “a school system with professional standards for dealing with censorship can welcome the interest and support of every faction in its community” (NCTE).  In this respect, a preemptive approach is all the protection a school district needs to protect itself.  The NCTE asserts that if a district has established definite written book-selection policies, which are on file with administrators, it tended to lessen the likelihood of censorship becoming an issue (NCTE).

School districts have spent enough hours planning to protect themselves from book challenges, but the question remains: Who is it that asks for books to be censored? Challenges actually come from both ends of the political spectrum.  According to the Educational Resources Information Center, there are three main kinds of censors: parents who have heard about or seen material that troubles them, community members or parents who react to books without having read them, and local, state, or national organizations with their own special interest agendas (Gottlieb).  Most people would associate these types of censors with the ultra-conservative right-wing branch of American society.  Liberal parents have also led crusades to have books removed from school shelves. The School Library Journal cites a case in which a progressive parent initiated a challenge against Judy Blume’s Tale of a Fourth Grade Nothing. The troubling scene in question is one involving a dead turtle.  The complaint was that reptiles have feelings and they also feel fear (Whelan).

Whether it is coming from the left- or the right-wing segments of society, people usually challenge particular books with the best intentions in mind.  They seek to protect others, especially children, from difficult ideas and information (“About”). Parents, who challenge materials more often than any other group, tend to be motivated by the desire to protect children from books that are sexually explicit, contain offensive language, or are unsuited to a particular age group—these are the top three reasons to challenge a book, according to the Office of Intellectual Freedom (“About”).  Other common reasons for challenging books are excessive violence, homosexual themes, racism, and religion (Whelan), as well as the ever-increasing presence of drug use in young adult literature (Kelly).

With some book titles, it is easily understood why someone might want to challenge its appropriateness in a school setting, while for others it is a little more difficult to see. Groups and organizations that recommend various titles for certain grade levels even end up sending mixed signals to librarians and teachers. For example, Ellen Wittlinger’s Sandpiper (2005) is a book about a teenage girl who learns about how easily oral sex can get her a boyfriend, but also educates her about the problems arising from her sexual discovery. Booklist recommends the novel for grades 8-12, Publishers Weekly recommends it for children ages 12 and up, and SLJ recommends it for grades nine and up (Whelan). Where exactly does this book belong? For some people, they have no problem with it being on a middle or high school bookshelf. For others, it has no place in schools.

One American classic that is frequently challenged is Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. When introducing this novel to a high school class, most teachers are careful to discuss Twain’s use of the word “nigger.” They discuss the historical context of the novel’s time period, how Twain’s language reveals the plight of the slave in the novel, and his use of the vernacular of the time (Kelly). Why might this book be challenged in public schools (after all, it is the 4th most banned book in schools)? Some parents consider it to be a racist novel (Kelly). With the obvious message of the novel, as well as Twain’s well-established role as a champion of all humanity, not just the white ones, it may seem ridiculous for anyone to label it “racist.”

In Palm Beach County, Florida, in 2007, there arose case of a parent challenging several books on religious reasons (atheism, abortion, and homosexuality) (Robinson). In this well-publicized case, the Palm Beach County school board voted unanimously to keep the books in question.  Board member Monroe Benaim defends his part in the decision: “As a school board member, I represent all children rather if they are heterosexual, homosexual, pregnant or not pregnant.  Our staff provides outlets for all children and means to get it.  Some children who may be embarrassed or shy might look to a book on feelings they are having.”  Fellow board member Bill Graham said, “This is a slippery slope.  If you take one book off the shelf, there’s no end to it” (Robinson). With the case of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, it is often a matter of parents’ interpretations of a classic novel.  In the Palm Beach County case, it is a matter of the school board acting logically and fairly in analyzing the challenge.

Two particular books that are often taught in public schools are Richard Wright’s Native Son and John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men.  Wright’s novel has been challenged in schools in eight states since 1978, but has only been banned in one school.  According to the American Library Association, challenges against this novel have been mostly based on parent complaints. The common reasons are the novel’s sexual, profane, and violent imagery and language (“Banned and/or Challenged”). Steinbeck’s novel, a book nearly a third the size of Native Son, has a more colorful history as far as its acceptance in public schools. Having been challenged in 25 different states, it has been banned, temporarily removed, or reinstated after being banned in 14 different schools.  Several different groups have led the charge against this novel, ranging from parent groups to the Ku Klux Klan to various civil rights groups.  On some occasions, students who object to its content have been offered the chance to read alternative titles in lieu of the original text. The most common reasons for this novel being challenged are its profanity, offensive or racist language, and taking God’s name in vain (“Banned and/or Challenged”).

With titles like Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Native Son, and Of Mice and Men, schools across the nation have seen all sorts of book challenges.  In some cases, the titles are removed completely, while in other cases the titles remain.  There are more ways to censor titles from school bookshelves than simply taking them off.  According to the NCTE, the most common ways to censor books are as follows:

  • The subtle censorship of “selection” — one-sided selections by individuals or groups
  • Deliberate exclusion of certain books — controversial topics avoided
  • Alteration of books – deleted or changed passages
  • Required book lists — deliberately or subtly excluding types of literature
  • Suppression of materials as a result of community pressure — community members or special interest groups
  • Direct edict — authorities, without justification, ordering censorship
  • Deliberate omission — only one or two viewpoints in collections
  • Curtailment of funds

These methods, along with self-censorship, are frequently seen in all kinds of schools. Even with these methods, however, there are several groups who are advocates against censorship, including the American Library Association (ALA) and the National Council of Teachers of English (Gottlieb).

After the 1982 Rico Supreme Court case, school districts have been preempting the possibility of large, drawn-out, public battles regarding book titles.  One such school district is Auburn-Washburn Unified School District #437 in Topeka, KS. The USD 437 Board of Education policies document states that all materials adopted for use in the classroom shall be subject to board approval and needs to support the district’s board-approved curriculum. Also, these titles must be chosen for accuracy, artistic quality, format, and authoritativeness; be evaluated before purchase by the instructor; and be appropriate for grade level (Auburn-Washburn).

Should a patron of the district bring forward any challenge, the board policy is that the challenge shall be considered in a particular manner.  First, the complainant must meet with the principal.  If a satisfactory resolution has not been met at that point, the principal will notify a district-level curriculum specialist who will ask the complainant to fill out a review form.  The complainant may also request the superintendent to consider the challenge.  In all cases, however, the challenged material shall not be removed from use during the review period (Auburn-Washburn).  On this review form, the complainant will be asked several questions, including the following:

  • Are you familiar with the district policy for selection of texts?
  • What are you objecting to?
  • What might be the result of using this material?
  • Did you read all this material?
  • If not, how were the parts selected for reading?
  • What is the theme of this material?
  • What would you recommend the school do with this material?
  • What material of equal educational quality would you recommend instead? (Auburn-Washburn).

Many districts have policies in place that are similar to this one.  The NCTE has specific advice for all teachers in the matter of possible challenge of book titles.  They encourage teachers to think through a rationale for all titles that may be read by the class, read to the class, or used in small group work or individual reading.  Further, teachers not only need to be willing to defend their choice to teach a particular title, but also prepared and able to defend their choices.  Prior to any actual challenge arising, teachers need to be sure to check with their own districts’ policies. They should keep files on books in their classrooms and prepare units that present balanced points-of-view regarding sensitive subjections.  Finally, the NCTE recommends that all teachers keep a steady line of communication open with curriculum directors and administrators (NCTE).

Book banning, book censorship, and book challenges will not disappear.  However, when the appropriate communication occurs or when school districts create policies that protect both students and teachers, it is possible that the concerns surrounding these challenged books may actually produce thoughtful and healthy conversation about deep issues within our society.

Works Cited

“About Banned or Challenged Books.” American Library Association. 2011. Web. 20 July, 2011.

Auburn-Washburn USD 437. Board of Education. Policy Manual. Topeka, KS: Kansas Association of School Boards, 2008. Web.

“Banned and/or Challenged Books from the Radcliffe Publishing Course: Top 100 Novels of the 20th Century.” American Library Association. 2011. Web. 20 July, 2011.

Boston, Rob. “Fanning the Flames: The ‘Golden Age’ of American Book Burning.”  Censorship. Ed. Byron L. Stay. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 20 July, 2011.

Gottlieb, Stephen S. “The Right to Read: Censorship in the School Library.” Educational Resources Information Center. June 1990. Web. 22 July, 2011.

Kelly, Melissa. “Censorship and Book Banning in America.” 7-12 Educators. 2011. Web. 22 July, 2011.

NCTE. “Guideline on Censorship: Don’t Let It Become an Issue in Your Schools.” National Council of Teachers of English. 2011. Web. 22 July, 2011.

Robinson, B.A. “Book Censorship in Public School Libraries.” Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Religious 1 Aug. 2007. Web. 22 July, 2011.

Whelan, Debra Lau. “A Dirty Little Secret: Self Censorship.” School Library Journal, 1 Feb. 2009. Web. 22 July, 2011.

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Ivy Lee

Natalie Fisher

Mass Media in a Free Society

22 July 2011

The Dawn of Public Relations

Public Relations, what exactly is public relations? You hear so many people use that phrase or sometimes they shorten it up to just PR. Public Relations is simply defined by the professional maintenance of a favorable public image by an organization or a famous person. The brains behind all of this can simply be named as Ivy Lee. Many historians credit Lee with being the originator of modern crisis communications. While Ivy Lee had competitors on who takes the founder of Public Relations, Ivy Lee came on top and had a successful life. Throughout this essay you can see the steps that Ivy Lee had taken to live up to the wonderful name as founder of Public Relations.

Ivy Lee was by Cedartown, Georgia on July 16, 1877 as the son of a Methodist minister, James Wideman Lee. His father also founded an important family in Atlanta. Lee got the chance to studied at Emory College. While he was at Emory College he soon transferred to Princeton then graduated from there. After graduation he scored a job as a newspaper reporter and stringer. He was a journalist at many places in New York including: the New York American, the New York Times, and the New York World. He got his first job came upon him in 1903 as a publicity manager for the Citizens’ Union. Soon after that he wrote a book called the Best Administration New York City Ever had. After that chapter in his life, he then took a job with the Democratic National Committee. Lee married Cornelia Bartlett Bigalow in 1901. They had three children: Alice Lee, James Wideman Lee II, and Ivy Lee, Jr.

In 1905 is when things really started changing for Ivy Lee. Ivy Lee scored his third Public Relations firm with George Parker in 1905. This firm established the name “Parker and Lee”. The new company bragged of “Accuracy, Authenticity, and Interest.” They first met while working in the Democratic Party headquarters, then soon became partners. After close to four years of The Parker and Lee firm, Lee who was the junior partner became a top role model in public relations. Lee turned his thoughts and ideas into the Declaration of Principles in 1906. During the same time an accident accrued with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Lee then issued the very first press release. During this press release he convinced the company to open handily spill out information to the press and journalist before it was told anywhere else. In 1912, after this press release he was hired full time at the Pennsylvania Railroad. This was considered to be the first full time executive level position for the public relations field.

At a time when other business man were trying to explain their clients’ activities in ways that were understandable to the public, Lee was realizing some things just couldn’t be explained in a harsh yet honest way. When the Rockefeller family let Lee work for his family, John D. Rockefeller himself had a long and well known reputation that he had built up as a robber baron because he, himself was a robber baron. He and several other well named business man had achieved a great life through success and being wealthy by being rude, not caring, profit-driven businessmen whose actions were often as harsh, arrogant, and uncaring as they were as a person. Their actions could be backed up by there words, but much of it was to far gone for any hope. The public would never have approved of such behavior, especially at times these actions took place. Lee came up with an idea that argued the robber barons’ thoughts and views of the public. Lee ended changing Rockefeller’s behavior, or what it was seen as the company’s horrid behavior. Many conclude that horrid behavior could have been the best public relations ever seen.

First Rockefeller fought to keep his thoughts and views, but Lee’s persistence but him down. At this point, instead of taking over and eliminating Rockefeller, Lee started writing press releases and public statements and arranging special appearances for Rockefeller. Lee soon became Rockefeller’s advisor on public relations. Lee held the company to new advantages of a broad range of business decisions and management policy that was all included by the following: redress workers’ grievances, the selection of new plant sites, setting employee wages and working conditions, and negotiating contracts with suppliers and vendors.

As looking further into Ivy Lee’s life there can be many questions and many people would not agree with his journey. He had a different outlook on the chain of command and many people did not agree with how he moved up or how he pursued public relations. Lee was always concerned about moving forward, while he always tried to have the public’s thought in mind, he consequently always did what he thought was best and what looked appealing to his eye. The insert from Ivy Lee’s Declaration of Principles states clearly how he presented himself, “In brief, our plan is frankly, and openly, on behalf of business concerns and public institutions, to supply the press and public of the United States prompt and accurate information concerning subjects which it is of value and interest to the public to know about.” As to the point as Lee was, many people could wonder why there was such a ruckus about his views. Many didn’t believe he was out of line, but many did not agree with Ivy Lee.

Whatever you call his approach, Lee had clearly transformed Rockefeller’s public image from that of an uncaring and rude portrait to a warm and caring employer and incredibly generous. As Lee had to die at an early age of 57 due to a brain tumor, to the point but incredible transformations of public relations will never be forgotten. Lee helped shape what public relations is today and brought it to be a great career that is taking over. Many may see his views as a bunch of ruckus, but that ruckus is making many people have a great life with a wonderful job!

Works Cited

Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Daguerreotype. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 July 2011

Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Daguerreotype. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 8 October 2009

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David Ogilvy

Shelby Chapman

Dr. Qingjiang Yao

Communications 128 – Mass Media In A Free Society

15 July 2011

“The Pope Of Modern Advertising”

            When you think of Advertising, you think of the big companies that lie behind their advertisements such as Frito Lays Doritos, or the classic Pepperidge Farms commercials. How often do we think of the people, or person, behind those ads? It is normally just guessed that the companies themselves make their own commercials or miscellaneous advertisements. In truth, there are more minds working up these images and slogans that we are so familiar with today. But how do these people create these advertisements that draw our attention so well? One of the leading Ad-men, David Ogilvy had become renown for his ability to find and sell the best products across the world. He had his one ways of finding out what products the public wanted, and how much they wanted it.

Ogilvy did not start out right away in advertising. Although he had scholarships paying for his schooling at Fettes College and Christ Church, Oxford, he left that all behind after only two years and moved to Paris, France to work as an apprentice chef at the Majestic Hotel. After only a year of this he returned to England and sold AGA Cookers door to door. He said that working at the Majestic taught him “Discipline, management… And when to move on.” He also said that if he had stayed there he would have faced “years of slave wages, fiendish pressure, and perpetual exhaustion.” His work with AGA Cookers was so astounding that they asked him to write a guide for AGA salesmen in 1935, which Fortune Magazine later described as “probably the best sales manual ever written.” Due to the effectiveness of that manual, Ogilvy got a job at the Mather and Crowling Advertising Agency in London, England as an account executive. In 1938 he convinced them to send him to America, where he worked George Gallups Audience Research Institute in New Jersey. He considered Gallup to be one of the major influences on his thinking. Gallup emphasized meticulous research methods and adherence to reality. (Ogilvy Bio)

During World War II Ogilvy worked with the Intelligence Service at the British Embassy in Washington. There he wrote enormously, analyzing and making recommendations on matters of diplomacy and security, and applied his knowledge of human behavior from consumerism to nationalism in a report that suggested to use the ‘Gallup technique’ on fields of secret intelligence. After World War II he bought a farm in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania where he and his wife lived for years, enjoying the serenity, abundance, and contentment among the Amish that lived there as well. Eventually though he gave in to the knowledge of his limitations as a farmer and moved to New York. There he founded the Advertisement Agency of Hewitt, Ogilvy, Benson, and Mather, which would later become known as simply Ogilvy and Mather, with the financial backing of the London Agency Mather and Crowther. In his agencies first twenty years he had already won assignments from three major companies, had received the entire account of Shell in North America, and became the first national advertising campaign of Sears. In 1965 Ogilvy merged his company with Mather and Crowther in London, and formed a new international company, and one year later the company went public. They were one of the first advertising firms to do so, and soon Ogilvy and Mather had expanded around the world and was firmly set in place as one of the top agencies in all regions. (Ogilvy Bio)

One of his most famous advertisement ideas was that of the Hathaway Shirt advertisement in 1951. C.F Hathaway was a small shirt company based in Waterville, Maine, and Ogilvy was on his way to a photoshoot for the company’s shirts when he stopped at a drugstore and picked up several eye patches for fifty cents each. He told the photographer “Just shoot a couple of these to humor me,” and the result? An ad featuring a slender, haughty, mysteriously one-eyed male model in a white dress shirt accompanied by a lengthy description of the shirts benefits, that soon appeared in the New Yorker. This intrigued American men, and soon C.F Hathaway’s sales skyrocketed and the entire stock sold out. “The Man In The Hathaway Shirt” made Ogilvy famous and became a national sensation. This epitomized what would soon become known as Ogilvy’s trademark approach, which was stylish, alluring print ads that spoke directly about the product and its benefits. (Helm)

In an interview on the David Susskind show when he was 72 years old, Ogilvy told Susskind all about his experiences during his long career. Ogilvy indeed was the first man to take polls on the movie going industry. He found out which actors and actresses were famous, which were popular to the moviegoers, and which were simply over publicized, and he actually wrote an article over which actors and actresses kept people away from the Cinema. He admits that by doing so, he probably ruined a few people, but he did not give out names during the interview. David Susskind referred to Ogilvy as “the most famous adman in the world,” and “the pope of modern advertising.” When asked how he got to be a legend, Ogilvy joking replied; “You know how you get to be a legend? You outlive all your competitors.” Susskind, and most likely the audience watching the show, knew this to be untrue as to how he was a legend, and so Susskind delved a little deeper by asking how he became a young legend. Ogilvy replied that one reason was that Americans had been skeptical about his knowledge. They asked him how he knew about advertising, because he was Scottish and that was not part of the Scottish genius. In fact, he knew more than they did and said that being Scottish actually gave him an advantage, in more ways than one. “There are so many advertising agents, how do you differentiate yours? But if you have a Scottish accent in helps,” he commented. (Susskind)

He also gave a lot of good advice during this interview. “The more you know a product, the better chance you have of coming up with a way to sell it,” he told Susskind, explaining that he had spent several days researching for Rolls Royce when he had been assigned a job to create an advertisement for their cars. There were stacks and stacks of paperwork detailing the cars and their features, and he studied all of the papers to make sure he knew and understood the product as well as he could. He also commented that “big ideas come from the subconscious. You can not get a big idea from rational thought,” and explained that when he had been trying to come up with an idea for a Pepperidge Farms commercial to advertise their bread, he had indeed dreamt of the old man in the horse drawn wagon with Pepperidge Farms logo on it. He said it gave the sense that this product was not something that made you think it was made in a factory, or in mass production, but that it could remind you of that good home cooked taste that you once had experienced in your grandmothers house. (Susskind)

David Ogilvy retired in 1973 at the age of 62, stepping down from the position as Chairman at Ogilvy and Mather. He moved to Touffou, his luxurious estate in France for seven years, simply enjoying the serenity of the countryside. In the 1980’s though he came out of retirement and went back to work as the chairman at Ogilvy and Mathers India branch, although he did not stay there long. Not content with that branch, he spent a year as temporary chairman at the German branch. In 1989 the Ogilvy group was bought by WPP, owned by Sir Martin Sorrell, and made WPP the worlds largest marketing communications firm. Ogilvy was named non-executive chairman, a position which he held for three years. David Mackenzie Ogilvy died on July 21st of 1999 at the age of 88. He is still the most famous name in advertising, and many of his ads have stood the test of time. (About)

Works Cited

David Ogilvy Biography. Web. 15 July 2011. <;

The Life And Work Of David Ogilvy. Web. 15 July 2011. <;

The David Susskind Show: The Pope Of Modern Advertising: David Ogilvy. Web. 15 July 2011. <;

The Rise And Fall Of David Ogilvy. Burt Helm. Bloomberg Business Week. Web. 15 July 2011. <;

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Ted Turner

Ted Turner (1938 -)

Ted Turner is a broadcasting entrepreneur, philanthropist, and sports enthusiast that created and developed some of the most profitable broadcasting and television networks in media history – TBS (Turner Broadcasting System), CNN (Cable News Network), and TNT (Turner Network Television). Based out of Atlanta, Georgia, he also capitalized on his love of sports by buying both the Atlanta Braves and the Atlanta Hawks, two professional sports teams, piloting professional yachting teams, and founding the Goodwill Games.

Ted Turner was born Robert Edward Turner III on November 19, 1938, in Cincinnati, Ohio. His father, a billboard magnate, moved the family to Savanna, Georgia, when Ted was nine. Coming from a wealthy family, Ted was sent to a boy’s prep school in Chattanooga, Tennessee, which groomed him for college at Brown University. At college, he devoted a lot of his time to the debate and sailing teams, as well as his fraternity. Unfortunately, he was expelled from Brown University for having a female student in his dorm room.

After Ted left Brown University, he moved back to Georgia and settled in Macon, where he ran a branch of his fathers advertising business. Following his fathers 1963 suicide, Ted became the president and chief executive of the company, Turner Advertising Company, at age 24. He took the already successful advertising firm, and turned it into a global enterprise. Soon, Turner Advertising Company became the largest advertising company in the South, and Ted used the profits to purchase radio stations. In 1969, Ted sold several of the stations to buy a failing television station in Atlanta, Georgia, which he gave the call sign WTCG. The station initially showed old movies and cartoons, as well as third hand syndicated shows from larger networks. In 1973, WTCG won the rights to broadcast Atlanta Braves baseball games. Piggybacking on the success of larger cable-based stations, Teds satellite broadcasting network was heavily used to fill time slots and channels on the cable stations, which dramatically increased his company’s viewers and advertising, and his station eventually reached two million viewers, which made him worth $100 million at the time. WTCG was renamed WTBS after Ted was able to buy the call sign from a student radio station at MIT college, which let Ted strengthen the brand of his blossoming “Super-Station”, TBS (Turner Broadcasting Station).

Not content with merely broadcasting sporting events, Ted bought the Atlanta Braves and Atlanta Hawks in 1976. This not only gave him broadcasting rights over his own teams appearances, but it allowed him to use TBS to make the Atlanta Braves a household name wherever his station was carried, which at the time, was already in almost every home in America. Following the success of his sporting/broadcasting monopoly, Ted created the Goodwill Games as a way for TBS to provide Olympic style sporting events on television, which was previously only offered by one of the three major television networks.

CNN (Cable News Network) was created by Ted in 1980, and was meant to fulfill his vision of the worlds first 24 hour news network, promising to report on the worlds events until the proverbial “end of the world”. In an effort to expand from television and broadcasting to movies and production, Ted bought the film studio MGM/UA (Metro-Goldwin Mayer/United Artists) Entertainment Company in 1986. This acquisition put Ted severely in debt, and he was forced to turn around and sell major parts of MGM/UA back to the original owner, but Ted kept the rights to everything produced by the two merged studios prior to the 1986 acquisition. Using a great deal of the footage he still owned from MGM/UA, Ted created TNT (Turner Network Television), Turner Classic Movies, and the Cartoon Network. In 1996, TBS merged with Time Warner, Inc. where Ted served as vice chairman of Time Warner and headed up the company’s cable network division. Time Warner eventually merged with Internet provider AOL. Following the dot-com bust in the late 90’s, AOL pulled Time Warner’s stock down, which prompted Ted to act hostile towards Time Warner’s CEO and board, prompting his forced resignation in 2002. All together, it is estimated that Ted lost as much as $7 billion dollars in the failed merger. Ted continues to own and operate CNN and other television stations, and continues to use his media outlets to serve as a megaphone for his opinions on politics, healthcare, foreign policy, and sports.

– Ron LaPoint
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D.W Griffith

When people refer to the field of film, they will remember some famous actors, actress and other film directors. In the world of film, no one can deny the fact that D.W Griffith plays a vital role in the career of film, who develops much advanced technology and liberates the film from other kinds of arts in order to enable the film develop independently. He was regarded as the pioneer in the early film careers. In this paper, I will review the whole life of D.W Griffith and his achievements in the world of film.

D.W Griffith was born in 1875 in the United States of Crestwood, Kentucky. His father Jacob Griffith was formerly a doctor and later he participated in the civil war and other wars. Even, he was once a legislator in the states of Kentucky. In the civil war, he suffered from serious pain. The serious pain brought many effects on the life of D.W Griffith. Firstly, his military rand was ungraded. Secondly, he encountered serious bankruptcy. When D.W Griffith was ten years old, his father died. At that time, his family was very poor and G.W Griffith lived in a miserable family. Later, his mother let them remove from many places to other places. In the process of remove, they finally settled in the Louisville. His father has great impact on the ethical opinion of D.W Griffith. His work always keeps a style of romance. In his much work, some people complain that his work is filled with much element such as artificial and sweet words. We can clearly see that his father instilled much emotional bias with the mind of G.W Griffith. In terms of this point we can understand that the romantic work of G.W Griffith.

When G.W Griffith was seventeen years old, he acted as a journalist in the Louisville. In his this period of career, he wrote many scripts as amateur. With the advice from his friends, he attended in the theatre tour, but he didn’t stop writing scripts. However, this kind of scripts didn’t be published by other persons. Griffith wants to become a famous playwright all the time but he only received little success in his career. In the year of 1897, he entered into the theatres to write and perform, but the result didn’t satisfy himself. In the theatre, he met a girl named Linda and finally married with her. After his marriage, he, along with his wife took part in the tour of performance. In order to supplement the family, he also took some other kinds of work to earn much money. Even at that time, Griffith was not very rich and lived a poor life, but he didn’t abandon his dream to become very rich. Griffith once thought that he can take advantage of ocean to change them into resource. However, he devoted his whole life in the literacy because he wanted to pursue his dream. In order to make his dream come true, he read many literary works and other kinds of book. In his later life of the film director, the work from Dickens had directly effect on his life.

In the summer of 1907, he and his wife encountered unemployment in the New York. Even, he received much failure in his time at New York City. However, this failure was the foundation of his later life. He absorbed in much experience from this failure. In 1907, Griffith, still having goals for becoming a successful playwright, went to New York and attempted to sell a script to Edison Studios producer Edwin Porter. However, Porter rejected him for the reason that there are many scenes in the script. The best manifestation of this point is that the basic differences between them are the style of performance. Later, Porter let him to act as one character in the movie of Rescued from an Eagle’s Nest. After Griffith worked as a supporting actor for a period of time, he switched into the other company-American Mutoscope Company&Biographe, which was one of the competitive enemies of the Edison Company. At that time, the company owns debts to other companies One film in that company only sells a little money. However, Griffith insisted on writing scripts at that company until the executive of the company died. Later, the position of the leader of the company was replaced by Griffith. In the year of 1908, Griffith directed the first film of his life time named The adventures of Dollie. From the time of Griffith, the film has become one of the characteristic arts works in the whole world. When Griffith at the company, he subsequently directed a series of films. People often named this period of time as the apprenticeship. As for the time, people can divide this time into two parts-at the former time of this period, he insisted on using his stage name but at the later time, he again changed his stage name into D.W Griffith. In terms of this point, it indicates that he realize that the film has become one of the independent art works throughout the whole world. From Griffith firstly to begin his director career, the company gave him a perfect partner names BillyBitzer. From then on, they cooperate with each other perfectly and has become one of the fabulous partners in the world. When Griffith firstly directed his film, he had little knowledge towards the film. However with the help from Billy Bitzer, he told Griffith about the knowledge of film and other advanced technology. They cooperate with each other to create narrative way to tell the story to the public. This is the cornerstone of the later film career.

People are familiar with the two famous films of Griffith-The birth of a Nation and intolerance. In the film of Griffith, he firstly introduced the technology of switch-back into the creation of one film. In the film of The Father Hour, he made use of the technology of switch-back to create a sense of tension in the climax of the film. Later, he not only utilized the technology in the climax of the film but also utilized the technology throughout the whole part of the story. Moreover, he created many scenes in the film rather than limited with only a few of the scene. In addition, he also introduced panoramic scene in the film. Some films only use a few characters to support the whole film. However as for the film of Griffith, he deliberately lost the foot of characters. He used panoramic scene to support the whole film. The most significant achievement of Griffith is the creation of technology of Montage.

That two films-The Birth of a Nation and the Intolerance has become the peak in the life of Griffith. This two films indicated that the film has become one of the social strong power to promote the development of the society. In this two films, Griffith prepared for a long time when he was at the opponents of the company of Edison Company. In the creation of this film, he not only directed the films but also acted as other kinds of workers in the film including some chores. These two films received high box office in the history of the field of film. In the film of The Birth of a Nation, he could organize every scene in perfect order and embodied the film with colorful imagination. In terms of this point, people in public all regarded him as high praise.

However in the later film of Intolerance, the film encountered serious financial difficulties. As for the film of Intolerance, people didn’t give highly praise like the film of The Birth of a Nation.

In the later life of Griffith, the serious financial difficulties of Intolerance indicate that the failure of Griffith(Johson, New York Times,1) There are many other persons replacing the position of Griffith. Some people say that the reason of failure of Griffith is that Griffith lost strong interests towards the career of film. Other people think that the style like modesty of Griffith was replaced with the artificial style.

After reviewing the whole life of Griffith, no one can deny the fact that Griffith really plays a vital role in the field of film. We should owe the advanced technology in the film and other kinds of imagination to the Griffith.

Work Cited

David W. Griffith, Film Pioneer, Dies; Producer Of ‘Birth Of Nation,’ ‘Intolerance’ And ‘America’ Made Nearly 500 Pictures Set, Screen Standards Co-Founder Of United Artists Gave Mary Pickford And Fairbanks Their Starts.”. New York Times. July 24, 1948, Saturday


— Trolly Zhao

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Edward R. Murrow

Ashley Wiles

Dr. Quinjiang Yao

Mass Media in a Free Society

5 July, 2011

Edward Murrow

“The Voice of America”

  Nazis, Communism, Senators, oh my! These are just three of the subjects honest and endearing Egbert Roscoe Murrow followed up on during his time in the media broadcasting system. Media has a large number of important people put away in its book of history, but there is one who shines against them all.  Egbert, better known as Edward, Murrow had a vision that changed the media forever.  He is known for many traits but one of his most memorable is his voice and style of speech.  He chose is words with care and appealed to listeners all over the world.  Many saw him as an idol in mass media, but Murrow himself just saw a person conveying the news.

Coming from a modest and simple origin Murrow went on to do great things in his late high school and college careers. Egbert showed a promising future.  In his second year at Washington State College he changed his first name to Edward.  Murrow was involved in college politics and soon became president of the National Student Federation, top cadet of the ROTC program on campus and class president. (“Biography”) After graduating with a major in Speech(“Murrow, Edward R | NCpedia” ) he found a job bringing Germans students to the United States that were dismissed or fled Germany due to the rise of the Nazi party. (“Edward R. Murrow Biography”) Then in 1935 he assumed a position at Columbia Broadcasting System. (“Biography”)

Murrow was somehow seemingly destined for his career as radio and televisions most dashing news broadcaster.   Quickly he was becoming known as the most honest and moral of the people in broadcast, Murrow suited the majority of the masses as the source for up-to-date information. CBS hired him as Chief of the European Bureau then sent him overseas to complete this task with London as his base. (“Murrow Bio.-Journalist/TV Newscaster”)  His job was to recruit well known or very important people to interview, as well as coverage over the happenings in Europe.  Audience would marvel at the words of this CBS news broadcaster, as his interviews and announcements hit the air of their living rooms.  One striking eyewitness report involved Murrow walking through the entrance of the Buchenwald prison camp, as one of the first Allies to enter this death cavern.  His description was both blunt and vivid, “As we walked into the courtyard, a man fell dead.  Two others, they must have been over sixty, were crawling toward the latrine.  I saw it, but will not describe it.  In another part of the camp, they showed me the children, hundreds of them.  Some were only six.  One rolled up his sleeve and showed me his number.  It was tattooed on his arm.”(“Biography”) Murrow showed his passion of news casting when he brought in his every report on the war to the ears of those who would take the time to listen.

 “This is London.”  Murrow would eventually start every report from his representative position with this line.  Murrow covered the World War II with his group of keen and eager minded reporters that frequently gave live accounts of what was going on during this tragic war. These young reporters were dubbed with the title “Murrow’s Boys.” (“Edward R. Murrow Biography”)  Their names eventually became part of everyday conversation in Europe and the United States.  Europe was in havoc during this time in history.  She was speechless, and who better to give her a voice than the aspiring CBS reporter and his team.  Edward Murrow and his boys were front and center ready to capture it all.  During some of Murrow’s reports citizens could hear the whistling of bombs and the explosive impacts behind the lure of his powerful words. (“Murrow, Edward R | NCpedia”)  To add even more charm to his charismatic reports he came across a phrase that would never fade from the pages of history.  After hearing the ending phrase “Goodnight and good luck to you all” from a young 13 year old Princess Elizabeth, Murrow himself adopted this conclusion and began ending his reports the same. (“Edward R. Murrow Biography.” -TV Guide) 

Coming from the modest background he did, Murrow had the potential to bring honest and truth to the media of his time.  There is much debate among this topic, due to the McCarthy report he gave on “See It Now,” a prime time television show that usually brought in about 3 million viewers each week. (“MURROW, EDWARD R”-Museum)  Following Senator McCarthy’s investigation of companies in the U.S. that interviewed and eventually accused countless citizens of communist affiliation, Murrow felt compelled to expose McCarthy’s tactics.  America now had new views and standards on political figures after that; “To his supporters, McCarthy was a dedicated patriot and a guardian of genuine Americanism; to his detractors, he was an irresponsible witch-hunter who was undermining the nation’s traditions of civil liberties.” (“Joseph McCarthy Biography”) This airing of “See it Now” sent unsettling chills down the spines of many Americans and CBS employees. It took guts to broadcast his finding on McCarthy, especially in the panic of 1950s anticommunist America.  This mash-up controversy and acquisition had disastrous consequences for both McCarthy and Murrow one of which eventually lead to Murrow’s retirement from CBS.  During this time in American history an excessive amount of uncensored and almost carefree information was given out like pink slips in an economic depression, Murrow was determined to release what he had found about McCarthy. (“Edward R. Murrow Biography”)  But the thing he was doing was what he was best at, the reason he was one of the most influential voices of his time in the media, telling what he thought to be the honest and up right truth.  Unfortunately some saw it as poor judgment, choosing to say what he did on that 1954 March evening.  A few years after that controversial live broadcast “See It Now” was cancelled, the show had been on since 1951. (“Edward R. Murrow – This Reporter”)  Tensions between CBS and Murrow grew toward his last years as an employee. 

Murrow also had another momentous story called Harvest of Shame.  Doing some self-proclaimed muckraking, Murrow brought forth the poverty and suffering of American migrant workers. Aired on Thanksgiving Day 1960, Murrow uncovered the veil of blunt disregard of workers who help feed the families of America.  That day he also called for protection of the workers. (“Murrow, Edward R | NCpedia”)   1961 marked the last year of Murrow’s legendary CBS career.  Also, 1961 held to be more interesting and eventful than Murrow expected.  President John F. Kennedy gave him the position; head of the U.S. Information Agency to him that year. (“Murrow Bio.-Journalist/TV Newscaster”)  In 1964, Kennedy awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom and in 1965 he was awarded honorary knighthood from the British government.  Winning countless awards for his news commentary, Murrow had an image known world-wide as the most influential and distinguished voice in television and radio news broadcasting.  He held this image until his death in 1965 he was 57.  He died of lung cancer, which coincidentally Quakers are traditionally against smoking as he did.  Drinking and gambling were also prohibited in the Quaker community. (“Murrow, Edward R | NCpedia”)

Murrow was a family man, being very close to his brothers, parents, wife and son.  This trait might have helped him display such happening as the war, to the people at home in such a way they could feel the shaking ground and musty skies of Europe.  His reports always held some trace of his Quaker background.  Many saw this as to why he also seemed so endearing and honest in his work.  Journalists and reporters are traditionally viewed as deceitful and prying, always trying to start some revolution or stir up trouble, no one wants to be around them.  Murrow, however, was quite the opposite. People tuned into his shows every week, waiting to hear what he would say next.  In his years of news casting, Edward Murrow did his work well with the technology of his time.  He didn’t really let anything hold him back, in his early radio years his voice had already became quite famous, and when television came into play people now matched a face with the charming voice, people couldn’t get enough of him.  It appeared as if opportunities sought out to find Murrow.  One story after another came Murrow’s way, he took them on with fearlessness and always tried to give it his all.  Nothing seemed to be in his way.  Murrow, using his dashing voice as well as his perfectly matched profession, saw an opportunity to rain truth to the ears of the listeners he reached.  Even technology seemed to wait for Murrow’s personality, radio was in its hay day and television brought forth a new world of opportunity, bringing the media to more people and in an improved attractive way, drawing more and more to witness its marvels.  These new advancements only enhanced Murrow’s name and voice.

Edward R. Murrow inspired a nation.  He grew to be well known and admired through his line of work.  Media would suffer if Murrow hadn’t left his footprints on its foundation.  On site reporting might not have come about as early as it did if Murrow and his dear Boys never felt the drive to cover the stories that were being created overseas.  He set the stage for field journalism and broadcast, we still use this strategy in today’s media.  Murrow fashioned a large impact on media of all types, still influencing the world of media in the present.  I will end as the historic and awe-inspiring Edward Murrow once did, in the words of Princess Elizabeth, “good night, and good luck.”


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